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Schicklgruber john mazziotta photographer insignia vs dynex brand total war rome 2 cheats god mode dr. This can apply to a variety of areas, such as building a new future for yourself, or putting your finances in order. Clear out what has stood in your way. Persistently turn your program into reality, step-by-step, until you are happy with the results.

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Venus gobierna Libra, el signo opuesto y complementario de Aries. Las ocho llamas del centro 2 x 4 afirman el equilibrio, dice Crowley. Once again, show complete commitment in order to achieve it. More than usual, you will notice how intensely your feelings support you in doing so and how your lively imagination inspires you. However, a sensitive and sympathetic man may also enter your life or plan an important role for you this week.

You will experience his proximity as very enriching and agreeable. Hashtags: thoth tarot crowley aleistercrowley aleistercrowleytarot weeklycardreading weeklyThoth thoththursday thoththursdays tarotcards tarotcard weeklytarot ladyfreidaharris bookofthoth ordotempliorientis druid druidry awen inspiration numerology knightofcups kingofcups cups chalices.

You feel strong, know exactly what you want, and are willing to even tackle difficult tasks on your own. Thanks to this decisiveness, you can now succeed in taking definitive steps. With your supremely independent conduct, you have a convincing effect on other people, who like to let you encourage, motivate, and guide them. However, it is also possible that a high-spirited, strong-willed woman will play an important role for you this week. Hashtags: thoth tarot crowley aleistercrowley aleistercrowleytarot weeklycardreading weeklyThoth thoththursday thoththursdays tarotcards tarotcard weeklytarot ladyfreidaharris bookofthoth ordotempliorientis druid druidry awen inspiration numerology queenofwands wands queen.

Keep your eyes open for a bargain, whether this is while shopping, visiting a travel agent, or studying the stock market. Recognise the opportunity that offers itself particularly for all plans and investments that aren't aimed at short-term benefits. This week you can lay the foundation for a project involving long-term projects that are important to you. Hashtags: thoth tarot crowley aleistercrowley aleistercrowleytarot weeklycardreading weeklyThoth thoththursday thoththursdays tarotcards tarotcard weeklytarot ladyfreidaharris bookofthoth ordotempliorientis druid druidry awen inspiration numerology aceofdisks disks aceofpentacles.

My dear friend rebeccenstein has officially launched her tarot site, eyebrightandrue - made by yours truly! Rebecca is a dedicated student of the Thoth Tarot, which may be the most no-bullshit deck out there, and she's exceptional at making the tarot accessible to everyone. And that's all to say that I cannot recommend her services enough, particularly if you've never had a professional reading before. Seis llamaradas salen del centro de la carta, representando la influencia del Sol regente de Tiphareth, la sexta esfera. However, if you actually do see yourself threatened from the outside, there are two possibilities for reacting.

Take heart and get it over with, if you must walk this path. However, if there is a true alternative, then you should choose this solution in any case. Not only will the head and heart harmonise joyfully well, but you may also experience an emotional lift that lets you reach seventh heaven. Use the opportunity to put things in order, since it's necessary to use the rational mind in addition to imagination.

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Above all, if somehing has become bogged down in the interpersonal realm, you should free it from this state this week. You don't need to wait any longer. Concentrate on your goal and once again check to be sure you have everything you need so that nothing important will be missing, or you suddenly lose energy while underway. However, if you aren't ready to go and haven't even been thinking of setting out, then you should be curious as to what runway will open up today.

Something will be certain to get rolling. Check out the other people getting involved in your affairs in order to compete with you for your position. Don't just watch without taking action when all your hopes threaten to be dashed, but fight resolutely for your concerns. If necessary, risk taking action on your own.

However, at the same time you are also correspondingly vulnerable to possible harshness. But you should still trustingly approach others since your good intuition will protect you from difficulties. Pay special attention to your dreams! It may also be possible that a sympathetic woman enters your life today and brings you closer to the mysterious or enigmatic aspects of life.

Go against your grain and risk something that you haven't had the courage to do up until now. In doing so, you can put complete trust in your intuition and it will instinctively let you do the right thing. But you can also use the inspiring energy to develop joyful visions for the future by planning something like your next vacation. Anyone who has studied the symbolism of the Thoth tarot will need not read the quote as the card encapsulates the meaning with higher perfection ; thothtarot fromhell alanmoore aleistercrowley freidaladyharris ladyfreidaharris kabbalah tarot quotesfromhell.

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Ochs Mahwah, , pp. Pritchard Princeton, , p. Whitehead, Process and Reality London, A corrected edition is D. Griffin and D. Sherburne, eds. Whitehead, Process and Reality New York, He thinks the phrase clearly evokes the divine name and represents the earliest. Buber says ehyeh asher ehyeh reveals in the first person what the name YHWH conceals in the third.

Only on this one occasion, in the sole moment of transmitting his work, is Moses allowed to take Gods selfcomprehension in his mouth as a name. Like Ibn Ezra and Rashbam before him, Recanati identified ehyeh as the first-person form of the third-person name yhwh. However, he went one very important step further by explicitly identifying ehyeh as the holiest of Gods names, this on account of it being the name that God gives to himself and with which he designates himself in the first person. Recanati understood this name to denote pure existencewhich is identical to the divine essenceand to contain within it the mystery of existence.

He considered the name yhwh to be less holy and to also denote pure existence, but to do so in the third person, because it is Gods creations who address this name to their Creator. We have been at pains thus far to stress the difference between the Hebrew text, which in some way appears to explain the Tetragrammaton, and the Greek Septuagint text, with its assertion of God as the existent one. Our review of modern Jewish scholars work has emphasized what we may call providential. He considers hayah to express either the quality of absolute being, the eternal unchanging dynamic presence, or to mean causing to be.

This would appear to be affirming the interpretation of Rosenzweig and Buber, but seems rather at odds with the previous quality of absolute being. He proposes ehyeh asher ehyeh as the explanation of the meaning of the name yhwh, and the ehyeh of b as a shortened form of ehyeh asher ehyeh and as the first-person singular imperfect form of the verb root hayah, and to mean I will be.

He understands yhwh to be the corresponding third-person form of hayah, He will be and the whole phrase as an idem per idem semantic device showing God as simply being cagey. Finally, he concludes that the ehyeh of b is nonsense and that Yhwh is here displaying anthropopathic petulance. The trend of late 19th-century and 20th-century scholarship, however, has been sharply to oppose the meaning of the Hebrew text with the later Christian interpretations based upon Greek and Latin Bibles.

A succinct and representative position was taken by Gerhard von Rad: nothing is further from what is envisaged in this etymology of the name of Jahwe, than a definition of his nature in the sense of a philosophical statement about his being LXX ego eimi ho n a suggestion, for example of his absoluteness, aseity etc. Such a thing would be altogether out of keeping with the Old Testament. The whole narrative context leads right away to the expectation that Jahwe intends to impart something but this is not what he is, but what he will show himself to be to Israel.

Acknowledging both ontological and providential perspectives, Paul Ricoeur insists that the ontological predication of God be framed in both a narrative and a prescriptive contextas is made quite clear in Exodus It is I Yhwh, your God, who brought you out: you shall have no other God which brings together the revelation of the name, the history of the Exodus, and the First Commandment. Rather, the historical and ethical efficacy of the name makes any supposedly distinct claim of existence superfluous.

Ricoeur sees in the very moment when God says ehyeh asher ehyeh and Moses says Here am I the ethico-narrative character of the revelation of God, related intrinsically Similarly, T. Dozeman, Commentary on Exodus Grand Rapids, , p. Marguerat and J. Zumstein Geneva, , pp. He feels the Gilsonian metaphysics of Exodus which stresses St Thomas Aquinass ontology needs to be checked by the narrative character of the call and the repetitiveexcessivecharacter of Yhwhs triple use of ehyeh, which he notes both Rosenzweig and Buber translate in terms of becoming.

The narrative framework itself prevents one from overvaluing and hypostasizing the triple ehyeh, which culminates in the Name yhwh. This excess generates a hermeneutic situation of a unique type, whereby the signification cannot be separated from its effectsits Wirkungsgeschichte. Attempts at reconciling these two perspectives continue. Saner has emphasized similarly that the received notions of a sharp divide between the Hebrew text and Christian readings should be rejected.

It is not difficult to notice that there is here among Christians a struggle over the relative canonical authority of Hebrew and Greek Bibles. He offers a hermeneutic retrieval of Scriptural texts in the light of modern continental philosophers accounts of the religious. Ehyeh asher ehyeh is interpreted in chapter two to guard against conflating Yhwh with the Supreme Being of philosophy, which leads to ontotheology.

Kearney reads I will be who I will befor God is not being or non-being but a self-generating event. God is what he will be when he becomes his kingdom and his kingdom comes on earth. I am who I may be is a performative rather than constative expression involving mutual answerability and co-creation. Kearney attempts to prevent Gods transcendence from becoming too transcendent, but on the other hand, he does not wish to reduce God to human hermeneutics.

Kearney defends his onto-eschatological reading as indicating that God puts Being into question, just as Being gives flesh to God. Richard Kearney is co-editor with J. Michael Allen, Exodus 3. Before considering explanations of yhwh which do not involve recourse to the verb to be, we should note a relevant complication.

The name yhwh appears in two forms in the Hebrew Bible. A shorter form, yh Yah , occurs in poetry and once in prose Exod. At Elephantine they wrote, apparently indifferently, yhh often on ostraca or yhwYaho or Yahu. Exodus ; Isaiah and ; and some 42 times in the Psalms.

Gardiner, On the Duplication of the Tetragrammaton in Isaiah Gibson, Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, vol. Jeremias et al. Gttingen, , pp. Earlier, J. Levy, The Tetra? Contrary to the suggestion of A. They apparently did not use yhwh. The Hebrew Bibles yhwh sboth Yhwh of armies appears as yhh sbotht. While found in theophoric names, yahu- yhw does not, as we have seen, appear as an independent word in the Massoretic Bible, where other than yhwh, one finds only rarely yh with a mappiq.

Nims and R. Steiner, A Paganised Version of Psalm Earlier, see G. Burnley, The Book of Judges Edinburgh, , pp. Eerdmans, The Name Jahu, pp. Thierry, The Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, pp. Martin Noth considered the longer form original; Martin Rose, the shorter. Littmann , eds. Paret et al. Leiden, , pp. Also, K. Idumaean inscription: A.

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The Tetragrammaton also appeared on inscriptions from the collection of Scheich Mousaeff, which the Israel Antiquities Authority has subsequently deemed fake: P. Bordreuil et al. Moussaieff, Semitica 46 , , and plates7 and 8. Similarly, one might consider the Wadi Daliyeh Papyri, official documents from the 4th century b.

Most of these documents are legal papers. See, for instance, wdsp 15, p. Evidence of shorter forms of the divine name is provided by theophoric names in the Hebrew Bible and epigraphy. Hebrew personal names containing the divine name are made up of an initial yhw- or yw-, or end with -yhw, -yh, or -yw. Standard onomastic studies propose a relative chronology of such names: at the end of a name, -yh found in Chronicles, the post-exilic books, and exclusively in the Isaiah A Scroll at Qumran is taken to indicate a more recent date and -yhw an older name from the 8th to the 5th centuries b.

These studies pre-date knowledge of the Lachish letters found in and Lachish was destroyed in B. The ostraca write yhwh in full; names ending in -yhw are common, but names beginning with yhw- and yw- do not occur, which is compatible with the schema proposed above. A final -yw is found in six names among the Samaria Ostraca first quarter of the 8th century b. For these ostraca, see: Gibson, A Textbook, vol. The inscription from Tel Dan c. A recent defence of the chronological usefulness of such onomastic evidence, including the Tel Dan Inscription, is Francis I. Andersen and Richard S.

Mastin, The Theophoric Elements yw, yhw in Proper Names in Eighth-Century Hebrew Inscriptions and the Proper Names of Kuntillet Ajrud, Zeitschrift fr Althebrastik , , finds that 8th-century inscriptions, with the exception of one from Tell Qasile, have yhw in Judah and yh in the north, as well as a little bit in Judah. Yh appears in the 7th and 8th centuries in Kuntillet Ajrud, perhaps due to men from the north. Also, S. This would permit an understanding of the name not as an etymology, but rather as some form of paranomasia or wordplay.

And such speculations are legion, given the number of languages which may be imagined as possibly original for the name: Sumerian, Akkadian, J. Weippert summarizes philological data and speculation: s. Jahwe, in Realexicon fr Assyriologie, vol. So, J. Joanns and A. Lemaire, Trois tablettes cuniformes onomastique ouestsmitique, Transeuphratne 17 , ; L.

Pearce, New Evidence.


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Eblaite, Egyptian the most minimalist historians of Israel have found reliable data here , Phoenician, Midianite, Amorite, Edomite, North Arabian, and Indo-European languages. Lipschits and M. Oeming Winona Lake, , pp. Earlier, an Akkadian etymology ia-u, noble one for yhwh was suggested by F. Delitzsch a notorious advocate of Assyriological origins , Babel and Bibel Leipzig, , pp. One might also consider Theodor Fritschs unambiguously titled Der falsche Gott Beweismaterial gegen Jahwe Leipzig, , which is at least anti-Semitic if not almost Marcionite.

Cazelles, Pour une Exgse, pp. Kupper Liege, , pp. The suggestion was previously made by Bauer, Landsberger, and Dhorme. C: Cuneiform Material and Historical Deduction, Vetus Testamentum 61 , , offers a clear explanation for non-specialists of the problems of recognizing yhwh in cuneiform material. Positively, she argues against the assumption that every bearer of a proper name compounded from yhwh was a either a Judaean or Israelite, as she considers Yhwh may have been worshipped in several Syrian cities.

See also, A. Mller, Gab es in Ebla einen Gottesnamen Ja? Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie 70 , ; G. Pettinato, Ebla and the Bible, Biblical Archaeology 43 , , thought that a supposed theophoric element d j in the Ebla texts was a short form of the Tetragrammaton. The earliest evidence for the Tetragrammaton is often considered to be an inscription of Amenophis III 14th century b. The name appears as: t3 3sw jhw3 the land of the Shashu Bedouin of Jahu, where jhw3 is a toponym for an area, probably southern Transjordan. Divine names can arise from toponyms, and at times in the Hebrew Bible Yhwh is said to come from Edom Ps.

However, it is not certain that yahu is a divine name in this text. Also Caquot, Les nigmes, p. Grand Rapids, , pp. Gary A. Greenspahn New York, , Chapter 1, offers a sober assessment of the minimalist agenda. The complexity of the issues arising in the early study of Israelite religion s generally relevant here to considerations of the. He deals thoroughly with the material from Kuntillet Ajrud 9th8th century b. Arthur Gibson, Text and Tablet Aldershot, , pp.

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For an early summary of notions including those of Deliztsch , now mainly of historical interest, see: Driver, Recent Theories, pp. Also, the entry in G. Botterweck and H. Ringgren, eds. See Van der Toorn et al. Also: A. Vischer, Yahwo plutt que Yahw, Ephemerides theologicae louvanienses 50 , ; Weippert, Jahwe, in Jahwe und die anderen Gtter, pp. Streck, Der Gottesname Jahwe und das amurritische Onomastika, Die Welt des Orients 30 , , examined the Amorite names ia-ah-wi and ia-wi as possibly derived from the verb to be but found them to be of no help in analysing the biblical name.

Generally, J. Del Olmo Lete Leuven, , pp. Ahlstrom, Who Were the Israelites? Winona Lake, Knauf, Yahweh, Vetus Testamentum 34 , at p. Better surely to look for an Arabic etymology. In Arabic he found the root hwy to mean to be passionate, to fall, or to harm, and from a combination of the three he considered Yhwh as a storm god like Baal or Hadad. Knauf considers that if Yhwh is a God of the south, then parallels might be sought among pre-Islamic divinities.

For the broader context of Knaufs work, A. Knauf, Midian. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Palstinas und Nordarabiens am Ende des 2. Jahrtausends v. Wiesbaden, Littmann, Archiv fr Orientforschung 11 , p. A Hurrian. Other meanings of hwy are indeed imaginable, but there is little in common between the following suggestions other than that they spring from that root. Goitein argues that the root signifies the Passionate One.

Klostermann recognized the same root, declaring that Yahweh means the Faller, but with a more negative connotation. So does Wellhausen: er fhrt durch die Lfte, er weht. Citing an Arabic root, Barton viewed the name as. Finally, B. Hrozny, Inschriften und Kultur der Proto-Inder von Mohenjo-Daro und Harappa, Archv Orientlni 13 , , suggests that yhwh is to be related etymologically to a god Yaue, apparently mentioned in an as yet unpublished 3rd millennium inscription found in the Indus Valley.

Schorr, Urkunden des altbabylonischen Zivil- und Prozessrechts Leipzig, ; repr. Similarly, Murtonen seeing the name as a nomen agentis with a y- prefix and meaning commander: A. Tropper, Der Gottesname Yahwa, pp. Khler drew attention to the many meanings that could be derived from Semitic root hwh: The Falling One of a holy meteorite ; The Felling One by lightning; therefore, a storm god ; The Blowing One a weather god.

Khler, Old Testament Theology Philadelphia, , pp. Klostermann, Geschichte des Volkes Israel Munich, , p.

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Berlin, , p. Duhm, Israels Propheten Tbingen, , p. Eisler, Orientalische Studien, Mitteilungen. Driver suggested, with mention of some Greek analogies, that the name arose first as an ejaculatory cultic shout of emotional rather than semantic significance. I am not aware of the names of any other Semitic deities being generated in this way, but he considered it significant that Hebrew compound proper names were never formed with yhwh, although many were formed with ya. Now, over a period of time, such primitive ecstatic ejaculations, he maintained, tend to become prolonged.

Thus, given Drivers belief that the genius of the Exodus event lay in the creation of a new national Hebrew deity, he was easily able to imagine the evolution whereby this new form of yhwh, from ya, easily came about. This new form was recognized quickly on the basis of popular etymology as closely resembling the verb hayah, and was adopted by the Mosaic community and subsequently into canonical Scripture. Oesterly and T. Meek, Hebrew Origins, 2nd ed. Toronto, , pp. Barth and G. Holzinger, Einleitung in den Hexateuch Leipzig, , p. Driver, Original Form, pp. Mentioned by H.

Otto, The Idea of the Holy, 2nd ed. Oxford, , , pp. Auerbach, Moses Amsterdam, , pp. For arguments that Semitic names tend to shorten or disintegrate from long, transparent forms or appellations, D. Jud 7. This cry of invocation developed a symbolic value as a symbolic designation of the ungraspable deity before finally being understood as a proper name. MacLaurin took exception to H. Tur-Sinais Torczyners suggestion that the sound of the name yhwh was the sound of thunder the roar of the host of Yhwh, on the basis of Jer.

Surely, he countered, thunder sounds more like rumph-rumph-rumph. Beitzel that we may have to do with a properly quadriliteral divine name to which the initial yod is intrinsic. Conversely, J. Metzger and M. Coogan Oxford, , p. Thus, one might explain the ending of yahweh as a secondary adjustment generated to produce assonance with end of ehyeh. For expansion rather than contraction of the name, see R. Mowinckel, The Name of the God of Moses, pp. See also with respect to Mowinkel, H. Otherwise he considered the Tetragrammaton to be made up of yah and the pronoun hu, and thus really to mean I am yh what I am hu.

Beitzel, Exodus and the Divine Name, pp. UT ; J. Aistleitner, Wrterbuch der Ugaritischen Sprache Berlin, , p. Giveon, Toponymes ouest-asiatiques a Soleb, Vetus. Ieuw; as a possible element in Babylonian Cassite proper names; and perhaps! We need not evaluate all these cases. Beitzel concludes that the Tetragrammaton is a quadradical divine name of unknown lexicographic and ethnic origin, and that its relationship with hayah in Exodus is one of paronomasia, not etymology.

A fair statement of ignorance. Such exhausting etymologies are of limited usefulness in understanding either the canonical text itself or its reception. In the first place, the conjectural etymologies and the supposed histories of religion they exemplify drive a wedge between the etymology and the worshippers of the god in question. Whatever their disposition towards their deity, etymology probably did not play a large part in it. The vast majority but not quite all of those we shall meet in this book took the divine name to be explicitly and obviously connected with the verb to be.

This need not be reduced to a sharp preference for ontology over providence, nor the preference for an abstract, transcendent God. Exodus read in the Greek and Latin Bibles in the received form of Exodus and the Pentateuch suggests that Moses question does address more than just factual information; indeed, it gives access to both the nature and the character of God. Moreover, for the majority of the Fathers the ontological aspects of the name of God will not be considered outside Gods relationship with the world, and generally will be addressed in the context of the Trinity and the Incarnation.

It is in this context that they address the problems raised by the text. The disciplines of etymology and the history of religions seek to answer questions the texts simply do not pose: had the Fathers been able to imagine these disciplines, they would probably not have thought them relevant. The following chapters are an attempt to chart Western Christian knowledge of and reaction to the Hebrew divine name yhwh from the beginnings to Testamentum 14 , ; most recently, M. Grg Barberg, , pp. So, Driver, Original Form, p. Stamm, Die Akkadische Namengebung Leipzig, , p. Murtonen, A Philological and Literary Treatise, pp.

Those limits may be readily justified by the fact that the book is already long enough, but they arise rather from my own limitations. My knowledge about Eastern Christianity is insufficient to attempt such an account for those churches. Similarly, I do not feel sufficiently informed on several crucial areas to essay an account venturing much beyond There are also positive reasons to stop where I do.

The scholars and readers I consider generally shared a positive view of the integrity and inspiration of Scripture. They lived before the Enlightenment, at a time when the presuppositions of the biblical narratives were not debated and when the developing critical disciplines were innocent of sharp dissent from the realistic naivety of earlier exposition. But from the 17th century and coinciding with the rise of the natural sciences, change was seen as a condition of creative action, the temporal as the real, and history as the locus of values.

Philosophers from Hegel onwards rejected the classical vision, and we shall not follow them on that journey. Our authors also shared a common cultural and literary heritage. This means that the same authorities, evidence, and citations reappear ad nauseam, but this does make it easier to detect innovation. The later story would be much more complicated. The book is intended as a work of history, and I have thus eschewed any theological comment as inappropriate.

I am unaware of any previous work with the scope of this book, unless it be found among those who wish to promote or prohibit a devotional or liturgical use of the Tetragrammaton or hold strong views about its pronunciation and meaning. He regards the eclipse of the name as part of a Satanic strategy and believes the Tetragrammaton appeared in early New Testament texts.


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  4. Our accounts have little in common, but he is followed closely by Didier Fontaine, Le nom divin dans le Nouveau Testament Paris, There is now a brief overview in Pavlos D. My interest lies rather in the Western Christian reception of the Tetragrammaton. In the first section I examine the use of the Tetragrammaton in the Scriptures and Worship of such pre-Christian Jewish groups we know about in this respect.

    We shall consider what the first Christians may have read in Scripture, but also observe that there is simply no indication that they wrote the Tetragrammaton regularly in the books they produced or used it in worship. There is clear evidence that Gnostic groups did use itGnostic Christian groups, one may argue. Nevertheless, I shall maintain that the New Testament shows intense interest in the Hebrew name of God, in spite of its apparent silence. I shall hope to contextualize that interest in the light of both Jewish and Gnostic texts. This period, I shall argue, was one when the Tetragrammaton was good to think with and a stimulus to creative theology.

    We shall pursue the lively debates around these issues into the Patristic period. At the end of the first section, a summary chapter on the Tetragrammaton in late Antique and early mediaeval Judaism and on the Massoretic conventions of writing the Tetragrammaton is provided to indicate the pertinent material with which Western Christians progressively became acquainted. The second section, Times of Ignorance, deals with the Middle Ages. Ignorance was relative and not total. The Tetragrammaton facilitated the reflection of some interesting and influential thinkers.

    We shall be mindful of drawing too sharp a distinction between the God of the Hebrew Bible and the God of the Latin tradition though they are different in so many ways. The Latin traditions concern with the Trinity, the Incarnation, and, finally, simply worship prevented God from becoming too abstract or removed, which is the usual charge. The God of the Hebrew Bible, of course, does not appear as either triune or incarnate, and so in these respects is very different.

    The Tetragrammaton also had a sustained use in magic, which is considered in the first section and continues to be relevant throughout the book. Simple distinctions between religion and magic, we shall find, are unlikely to do justice to the various uses to which the Tetragrammaton was put. The Middle Ages also allows us to develop one of the books main themesthat of the relationships between Jews and Christianswhich is inevitably central.

    We are, after all, considering the Christian reception of the Hebrew name of God. Our story covers three major appropriations of Judaism by Christians. This, I believe and shall argue, was a period of intense and creative theological reflection upon the name of God. In the 12th and 13th centuriesapparently due, we must say, to the number of learned Jewish converts to Christianitythe Talmud was exploited to demonstrate that Christ was the Messiah and to offer proofs of the Trinity.

    In the 15th and 16th centuries we find some significant Christian engagement with Kabbalah in the interests of Christology. In some cases, a mixture of Kabbalah and Hermeticism provided imaginative space in which, again, theological innovation, not always to the taste of the orthodox, might develop. Consideration of the name of God was central in this characteristically Renaissance synthesis. We shall see how these major movements of appropriation condition Christian notions of the Tetragrammaton or are stimulated by reflection upon the holy name. When it comes to real Jewssomewhat different from the Old Testament characters of Christian narration and of course this difference is critical I have tried to place Christian discussion in the context of community relationships which were, let us admit, sometimes not at all happy.

    Christian notions of the Hebrew name of God often depended as we have seen upon Jewish converts. One may be excused for thinking that the first requirement of a good convert was to be able to count up to three and thereby demonstrate in any given context hidden knowledge of the Trinity, such is the triviality of much of this material. But we may concede also, upon further investigation, that some converted Jewish Kabbalists were working within the terms of their own discipline to significant levels of profundity.

    The Christian discovery of the Hebrew personal name of God in the early modern period took place at a time of great social and religious change during the Reformation. The growth of printing and reading in the vernacular as well as Latin facilitated this change, as did the increasing competence of Christian Hebraists. I have told the story of these changes in some detail so that the increased visibility of the Tetragrammaton may be intelligible. I must ask the indulgence of experts in tolerating here some account of already familiar knowledge.

    Without such contextualization, the growing familiarity of the name will not be intelligible to non-specialist readers. In the case of a book with a subject spanning two millennia, most readersand, more particularly, the authormay expect to find themselves frequently in the category of nonspecialists. My own indebtedness to many specialist scholars will be continuously apparent from the notes. These are full but are not exhaustive, which would be impossible: they aim to provide justification, documentation, and context.

    Experts may not need them, but I hope many readers will find them of interest and an aid to navigation in areas perhaps unfamiliar. I have sought,. In discussion of the scholars of the Reformation I have tried to exemplify the work of Catholics, Lutherans, and the Reformed Churches. With perhaps the exception of Servetus, it would be difficult to claim a determining role for the Tetragrammaton in the development of the theology and Christology of the major Reformers.

    Nevertheless, it remained an important consideration, and their attitudes to it illustrate important aspects of their thought. Specifically, we find it instrumental in their articulation of their distinct doctrines. The book ends with the philological discussions of the 17th century and the demystification of language and writing, which became more widespread. There was major debate about the authenticity and value of the vowel points in the Massoretic Hebrew Bible, which had obvious and direct relevance to the Tetragrammaton.

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    But although differing positions were taken, the debate progressively becomes more and more repetitious, and there is little innovation. The changed assumptions in the philosophy of language, and improved comparative and historical skills offered less scope for the great syntheses of the later Christian Kabbalists. I offer the number and sameness of university dissertations on the topic as evidence that our story at this point had become something of an academic commonplace: another reason why this seems a good place to stop.

    I am indebted to my former teacher and doctoral supervisor, Dr Sebastian P. Brock Oxford , for reading and commenting upon the early chapters of this book. Similarly, my good friend Mr. Andrew J. Walker, Director of Finance and Administration for the House of Commonsa Classicist and an Orientalist responded to an early draft and provoked considerable rewriting. My wife has helped me with the illustrations. I am also indebted to the anonymous readers of Brill and to its able editors.

    Such a practice, we now know, was far from universal during earlier, pre-Christian stages of the Greek biblical textual tradition, but it appears thoroughly characteristic of the latter Christian copies. Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus2have no trace of the Hebrew personal name of God, yhwh. An immediate and relevant consequence of this is that whereas in the Hebrew Bible Exodus appears to be some sort of explanation of the Tetragrammaton, the corresponding section in the Greek Scriptures is not at all concerned with explaining the Tetragrammaton. This remains the case even when ia or the Tetragrammaton appear in Greek biblical texts.

    The Greek of Exodus offers no explanation of these exotic forms, nor would any Greek reader find such a connection. However the divine name was represented in Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible, Exodus always remainedhaving 1 Technically there is far more to be said here. Eissfeldt Giessen, , devotes volume 1 to considering how the Septuagint renders yhwh and other divine names. He devotes pp.

    Earlier: K.

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    Huber, Untersuchungen ber den Sprachcharakter des greichishen Leviticus Giessen, , p. Also, A. Zeitschrift fr alttestamentlische Wissenschaft 54 , John L. In this section, through an examination of the relevant biblical textual evidence, we consider the physical eclipse of the Tetragrammaton in both Jewish and Christian usage. We shall chart its use in pre-Christian biblical texts in both Greek and Hebrew and consider the inhibitions which developed concerning its use and articulation.

    We shall also consider the origins of the use of kurios within the Greek biblical text. We shall then discuss the absence of the Tetragrammaton both in the New Testament Chapter 2 and generally in the subsequent early Christian writings Chapter 3. By way of contrast we shall describe its appearance in some Gnostic texts and its extensive use in Late Antique magic texts Chapter 4.

    The comparative silence of the New Testament, I shall argue, is not a symptom of disinterest. Rather, the Tetragrammaton was central in the developing Christologies of the early Christians. A final chapter in this section Chapter 5 discusses Rabbinic texts, perhaps from the late 1st or early 2nd century a. These are texts with which learned Christians became progressively familiar, and so they will become increasingly important in the remarks about the Tetragrammaton. In Chapter 5 we shall also address the conventions of writing and reading the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Massoretic manuscripts of the early Middle Ages, which display evident continuities with the earlier pre-Christian practice.

    It was reading the name of God in these manuscripts, and more commonly in the subsequent printed Massoretic text, which facilitated the appearance of the distinctly Christian Jehovah. Although the initial translations of the Hebrew Scriptures were naturally the work of Jews, it was their translations into Greek together with other works, some with no Hebrew original at all which Christians subsequently adopted as their Old Testament and which have been transmitted to us thereafter by Christian copyists. Robert Hanharts introduction pp. Their more briefly annotated Pentateuch is.

    Thus the personal name of God effectively disappeared from Christian Bibles. The eclipse of Gods proper name in the Greek Scriptures will necessarily occupy us in this chapter. It will help us appreciate some significant forces at play here if we consider the Aristeas Story, not in terms of its historicity, but rather those of its production.

    It is clearly designed to authenticate the Septuagint as Scripture by recounting the miraculous concord of the seventy scholars who worked on the Torah translation: they, too, were inspired. A plausible scenario for the production of the legend, suggested by Dr Brock, is that there was an influx of available in C. Dogniez and M. Harl, eds. La Bible de lAlexandrie Paris, , with useful introductory notes on pp. Also: M. Mller is answered in E. Peters Atlanta, , pp.

    Dines, The Septuagint London, , pp.

    The Greek text may conveniently be found in an appendix by H. Thackeray to H. Also, G.

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